california financial elder abuse cause of action

california financial elder abuse cause of action

1
0
SHARE

Elder Abuse and Dependent Adult Civil Protection Act 2. Reader Question: What Should I Ask In Selecting A Nursing Home For My Parent? Los Angeles Law Office Map, Dolan Law Firm PC All rights reserved. Oakland Law Office Map, Dolan Law Firm PC Blog | A civil cause of action exists for financial exploitation of an elderly person or a person with a disability as described in subsection (a) of this Section. The trial court sustained the demurrers and the … Abusive actions 2. Freelance attorneys modernizing legal practice. California Welfare and Institutions Code section 15600 protects elders (anyone 65 year of age or older) and dependent adults from many types of physical abuse and neglect. We represent seniors and families who loved ones were victimized by financial elder abuse. California False Claims Act Whistleblower Attorney: Mortgage Insurance Fraud And False Claims Against The Government Read More . One type of elder financial abuse under California Welfare and Institutions Code section 15600 involves the concept of “undue influence.”. in taking, secreting, appropriating, obtaining, or retaining, real, or personal property of an elder or dependent adult by, entity alleged to have committed financial elder abuse knew or should have known that the conduct at issue was likely to have been, The taking of the property of an elder is not restricted to physically removing property from the elder’s possession. “Financial abuse” of an elder or dependent adult occurs when a person or entity does any of the following: (1) Takes, secretes, appropriates, obtains, or retains real or personal property of an elder or dependent adult for a wrongful use or with intent to defraud, or both. Fighting Financial Elder Abuse In California By Niall P. McCarthy and Eric J. Buescher COTCHETT, PITRE & McCARTHY, LLP Introduction Financial elder abuse cases are on the rise in California. Privacy | Personal property is all property other than real estate, such as money, stocks, jewels, etc. An Overview of Civil Causes of Action for Elder Abuse in California, Do you actually need a full-time job? Athena Roussos is a Certified Specialist in Appellate Law.  She received a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science, cum laude, from California State University, Long Beach.  She graduated summa cum laude from Syracuse University College of Law in 1997, finishing in the top 2% of her class.  In law school, Athena was a member of the Order of the Coif and the Justinian Honor Society, and was an Associate Editor for the Syracuse Law Review. Real property refers to land or structure built on land such as a house. The defendants filed demurrers to the Mahan’s financial elder abuse cause of action in the first amended complaint arguing that the real party in interest was the Children’s Trust, which owned the policies and suffered the depravation. Those advocating for the rights and safety of our elder and dependent citizens … 94612 Writ of attachment; action for damages for financial abuse of elderly and dependent adults Notwithstanding Section 483.010 of the Code of Civil Procedure, an attachment may be issued in any action for damages pursuant to Section 15657.5 for financial abuse of an elder or dependent adult, as defined in Section 15610.30. Caregivers, family members and the residents themselves should look for any evidence of elder abuse and potential issues that could have led to this abuse. The law defines taking to include depriving an elder or, including by means of an agreement, donative transfer, or, testamentary bequest, regardless of whether the property is held, directly or by a representative of an elder or dependent adult.”, San Francisco Personal Injury Attorney | Dolan Law Firm, PC, Half of all financial exploitation of seniors. The attorneys affiliated with Montage Legal Group are independent sole practitioners and do not constitute a law firm among themselves. Montage provides support solely to attorneys, not end clients. Disclaimer | The information provided in this website should not be construed as legal advice. Self-neglect 3. Here is what you need to know, An Interview with SMCTLA’s Treasurer: Kimberly Levy, Assembly Bill 47 Increases Penalties for Distracted Drivers. CA for a wrongful use or with intent to defraud, or both. The Pleading Requirements to Assert a Violation of the Elder Abuse Act The Elder Abuse Act makes certain enhanced remedies available to a plaintiff … The article discusses how civil actions for elder abuse appear to be on the rise as the aging population in California is growing, and provides an excellent overview of elder … The elder or dependent adult victim of financial abuse themselves has standing to bring an action under the Elder Abuse and Dependent Adult Civil Protection Act. • In order to establish a cause of action for financial elder abuse, the plaintiff must prove that: (1) the victim was a qualifying elderly person within the meaning of the abuse statute [§ 6]; (2) the defendant wrongfully appropriated the victim's property [§§ 7 to 9]; and San Francisco Law Office Map, Dolan Law Firm PC Financial mismanagement of a client’s brokerage account in the manner … Financial elder abuse occurs when people cheat elderly people out of their money or their property. The law provides for the recovery of damages for pain and suffering, economic damages, and punitive damages when there has been recklessness, fraud and/or patient abandonment. The sample complaint on which this preview is based requests attorney's fees and costs as well as punitive and … Athena Roussos, a freelance lawyer in Montage’s network, published an article in the September issue of the Riverside Lawyer Magazine entitled “An Overview of Civil Causes of Action for Elder Abuse in California.” The article, which is on page 16 of the issue, provides a general summary of civil causes of action for elder abuse, including the types of elder abuse (physical, neglect, and financial), the elements that must be proven, and the relief available. In addition, an action for financial abuse under the Act may also be initiated or maintained by the elder or dependent adult’s representative, including a conservator, trustee, or attorney-in-fact. The offense can be charged as a misdemeanor or a felony, and can carry up to 4 years of jail or prison. COVID-19 and Your Employment Rights under FEHA and FFCRA, What is Ascertainment? An action for damages pursuant to Sections 15657.5 and 15657.6 for financial abuse of an elder or dependent adult, as defined in Section 15610.30, shall be commenced within four years after the plaintiff discovers or, through the exercise of reasonable diligence, should have discovered, the facts constituting the financial abuse. 510-486-2800 Site Map. impose financial elder abuse liability as to plaintiffs’ first cause of action for. 1498 Alice Street California Financial Elder Abuse Attorneys: SEC Senior Guide Helps Seniors Protect Themselves Against Fraud Read More . Approximately 1 in 10 Americans aged 60+ have experienced some form of elder abuse. December 16, 2020 in Evans Law Firm. Athena has been certified as a specialist in appellate law by the State Bar of California Board of Legal Specialization, and has over 15 published opinions.  In addition to her legal practice, Athena was a Commissioner of the California State Bar Appellate Law Advisory Commission from 2010-2013.  She is an Adjunct Professor at McGeorge School of Law, a certified mediator with the Court of Appeal for the Third Appellate District.  She has also been a Board Member of the Women Lawyers of Sacramento, and an Officer of the Appellate Law Section of the Sacramento County Bar Association. (3) Takes, secretes, appropriates, obtains, or retains, or assists in taking, secreting, appropriating, obtaining, or retaining, real or personal property of an elder or dependent adult by undue influence. For information about joining the Montage platform, please click here. In California There Are Very Strict Pleading Requirements In Elder Abuse Cause of Actions California’s Elder Abuse and Dependent Adult Civil Protection Act The Elder Abuse and Dependent Adult Civil Protection Act (Welf. This sample verified complaint for financial elder abuse in California contains a cause of action for financial elder abuse under Welfare and Institutions Code section 15610.30 as well as causes of action for fraud, quiet title, cancellation of written instrument and constructive trust. Elder Abuse Laws (Civil - Private Actions) Code Section Description Penalty; BUSINESS & PROFESSIONS CODE § 17200 et seq. Essentially, the laws forbid the lack of care as well as the physical or mental abuse of elderly dependent persons. Financial elder abuse occurs when defendant takes advantage of an elder or dependent adult by taking, hiding, appropriating, obtaining or retaining plaintiff’s property or assisted in doing so. This liability is supported by the court’s findings that ‘[decedent] did not know the extent of [defendant’s] spending,’ and that ‘[w]hile. The law defines taking to include depriving an elder or dependent adult “of any property right, including by means of an agreement, donative transfer, or testamentary bequest, regardless of whether the property is held directly or by a representative of an elder or dependent adult.”. Montage expressly disclaims all liability in respect to actions taken or not taken based on any or all of the contents of this website. Financial abuse C. Dynamics of Elder Abuse 12 D. California’s Approach to Addressing Elder Abuse 14 1. Per the defendants, since the Children’s Trust is not an individual over age 65, there could be no financial elder abuse claim. Los Angeles, Financial abuse of an elder or dependent adult occurs when a person or entity does any of the following: The applicable law provides remedies for abuse to elders and dependent adults. Under this statute, “financial abuse” of an elder occurs when a person or entity takes, secretes, appropriates, obtains, or retains real or personal property of an elder or dependent adult for a wrongful use or with intent to defraud, or both, and knew or should have known the conduct was likely to be harmful. Real property is also referred to as real estate. San Francisco, This sample verified complaint for financial elder abuse in California contains a cause of action for financial elder abuse under Welfare and Institutions Code section 15610.30 as well as causes of action for fraud, quiet title, cancellation of written instrument and constructive trust. Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program E. Elder Abuse Issues in the Courts 18 1. The breadth of predatory practices is staggering. Transmission of information from this website is not intended to create, and its receipt does not constitute, an attorney-client relationship with Montage or any of its individual attorneys or personnel. (Financial Abuse of Elders and Dependent Adults - Non-Caretaker) Theft, embezzlement, forgery, fraud or identity theft with respect to property or personal identifying information of an elder or dependent adult; With knowledge that he or she is an elder or dependent adult; By person not a caretaker of the elder … The Dolan Law Firm is one the leading injury and elder abuse law firms in California. At the community level, caregivers may knowingly or inadvertently cause social isolation of the elderly. It is important to understand how to recognize the warning signs of elder abuse in order to keep senior citizens safe. 90017 Oakland, Athena affiliated with Montage Legal Group’s network of freelance attorneys in 2013, and assists law firms with civil rights and appellate projects. and § 17500 et seq. CA Learn more about the types of abuse from the National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA). Please click here to contact us or call us toll free at 1-888-452-4752. How many older Americans are abused? California causes of action are subject to various statutes of limitation. Oakland, Crimes of financial abuse against elder or dependent adults are cowardly and despicable acts that are psychologically devastating and destroy independence. 415-421-2800 1438 Market Street Try freelance legal work, Law Firm Growth During an Uncertain Legal Climate – Part 2: How to Ethically Use Freelance Lawyers & Referral Fees, Congratulations to the 2021 OCWLA Officers & Directors, What You Need to Know Before Investing in Mexican Real Estate, Ethically Working With Contract Lawyers: Best Practices and Pitfalls to Avoid. The single biggest regret we have seen is family members who have waited, not wanting to cause family disharmony, until it’s too late and the elder is left in a precarious financial or health situation. Financial elder abuse in California is defined by the provisions of Welfare and Institutions Code section 15610.30 which states that, “ (a) “Financial abuse” of an elder or dependent adult occurs when a person or entity does any of the following: Legal Guides | Oakland Law Office Map, © 2017 by Dolan Law Firm PC. Adult Protective Services (APS) 3. 1000 Wilshire Blvd #2150 A new case from the Court of Appeal once again illustrates the robust nature of claims under California’s Elder Abuse and Dependent Adult Civil Protection Act, also known as the Elder Abuse Act.. 510-486-2800 (Unfair Business Practice; Deceptive Advertising) Any unlawful, unfair or fraudulent business act or practice; deceptive, false or misleading advertising. Financial exploitation means the misuse or withholding of an older adult’s resources by another. 94612 After law school, Athena joined Snell & Wilmer where she practiced civil state and federal court litigation, including writs and appeals, labor and employment cases, trademark infringement, franchise disputes, construction defect cases, real property disputes, and product liability litigation.  Athena left Snell & Wilmer and joined Downey, Brand, Seymour & Rohwer LLP as an environmental law associate.  At Downey, Athena’s practice focused on environmental litigation and regulatory compliance.  Athena then joined Jay-Allen Eisen Law Corporation as a senior associate.   At Jay-Allen from 2002 through 2006, Athena focused her practice on writs and appeals.  Athena then joined the University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law as a full-time lecturer.  At McGeorge, Athena taught Global Lawyering Skills. California False Claims Act Whistleblower Attorney: … The taking of the property of an elder is not restricted to physically removing property from the elder’s possession. (a) “Financial abuse” of an elder or dependent adult occurs when a person or entity does any of the following: (1) Takes, secretes, appropriates, obtains, or retains real or personal property of an elder or dependent adult for a wrongful use or with intent to defraud, or both. it is not uncommon for a spouse to spend money or purchase items of which the. The action must be completed with the intent to defraud or done with wrongful influence, often in the form of a new will, trust or agreement. What’s more, the longer you wait to pursue claims, the less likely there will be anything to recover from the abuse. Elder financial abuse: ... area as the abuser is more likely to result in abuse. Reader Question: Can I Sue A Nursing Home For Neglect & Deficient Care? Under Penal Code 368 PC, California law defines criminal elder abuse as the physical or emotional abuse, neglect or financial exploitation of a victim 65 years of age or older. Perpetrators can be family members, trusted professionals, or large financial institutions. Half of all financial exploitation of seniors is committed by strangers, followed by family, friends, and neighbors (34%), the business sector (12%), and Medicare and Medicaid fraud (4%), and costs seniors over $3 billion annually.  The article discusses how civil actions for elder abuse appear to be on the rise as the aging population in California is growing, and provides an excellent overview of elder abuse in California. Use of Montage's services does not establish an attorney-client relationship. 94102 To join our platform, email your resume to: [email protected]. It is critical to provide the resources that would allow caretakers to better manage their s… CA Elder Abuse In California - The Basic Law Recognizing the increasing reported instances of abuse of elderly people, the State of California has passed various statues making such abuse subject to unique criminal and civil liability. The article, which is on page 16 of the issue, provides a general summary of civil causes of action for elder abuse, including the types of elder abuse (physical, neglect, and financial), the elements that must be proven, and the relief available. After years of hard work and saving, elders may have significant economic resources, partly in savings and retirement accounts and partly in the value of their homes. Case types 2. The good news is California has many elder and dependent adult statutes that can be used by criminal prosecutors, civil litigators and those engaged in protective services. When caregivers experience personal issues that create frustration and distress for them, they may feel inclined to take it out on the nursing home resident. Victims come from all socioeconomic backgrounds. Unless a plaintiff or petitioner files a complaint or other document asserting a cause of action within the applicable limitations period, the filing will be deemed time barred and subject to dismissal. Capacity and competency 3. The California Elder Abuse and Dependent Adult Civil Protection Act, the “Elder Abuse Act,” protects elders against financial and other abuse “by providing enhanced remedies which encourage private, civil enforcement of laws against elder abuse and neglect.” What Are The Pleading Requirements To Sustain An Elder Abuse Cause of Action in the State of California? Plus, it must be shown that the person or entity alleged to have committed financial elder abuse knew or should have known that the conduct at issue was likely to have been harmful to the elder or dependent adult. Undue influence F. Judicial System … Enter your email address to receive blog updates via email. The action can be brought in the probate court or the civil court in the jurisdiction of the abused person. California Welfare and Institutions Code section 15600 protects elders (anyone 65 year of age or older) and dependent adults from many types of physical abuse and neglect. This sample verified complaint for financial elder abuse in California contains a cause of action for financial elder abuse under Welfare and Institutions Code section 15610.30 as well as causes of action for fraud, quiet title, cancellation of written instrument and constructive trust. ‘excessive persuasion that causes another person to act or refrain from acting by overcoming that person’s free will and results in inequity,’ and listing factors to be considered in making an undue influence determination under section Filed Under: freelance attorney, freelance lawyer. Unfortunately, we cannot do informational phone calls. CA California law protects elders, dependent adults, and developmentally disabled persons from many types of abuse and neglect, including financial fraud. To read the full article, please visit page 16 of the Riverside Lawyer: An Overview of Civil Causes of Action for Elder Abuse in California. Dolan Law Firm PC There also are litigation risks associated with these issues.  During law school, Athena also externed for the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of New York. We represent clients from San Francisco, Oakland, Marin, the entire Bay Area and across California. What Is Elder Financial Abuse Under California Law? Take action and contact us without delay. California Welfare and Institutions Code section 15600 protects elders (anyone 65 year of age or older) and dependent adults from many types of physical abuse and neglect. 1498 Alice Street What Is Financial Abuse of Elders? 213-347-3529 December 15, 2020 in Evans Law Firm. Financial abuse is depriving an elder of money or property, or of control over money or property, by theft, manipulation, undue influence, or fraud.. Why Does Elder Abuse Happen? California law defines elderly people as those who are aged 65 or older. Contact a financial elder abuse attorney the moment you suspect abuse. occurs when a person or entity does any of the following: personal property of an elder or dependent adult for a wrongful use, retaining real or personal property of an elder or dependent adult. Montage will protect the confidentiality of information, but information you provide to Montage may not be afforded legal protection as attorney-client communications. In California, for instance, a cause of action for elder financial exploitation is defined broadly to include not only those who obtain or misappropriate an elder’s property through fraud or undue influence, but also those individuals and entities who assist such wrongful conduct. Legal Disclaimer: Montage Legal Group is not a law firm and does not provide legal representation to clients. fiduciary abuse of an elder. If an elderly person in California has been subject to abuse, either physical or financial, the conservator may bring an action under the Elder Abuse and Dependent Adult Civil Protection Act. Elder financial abuse is both despicable and occurs far too frequently in our society. (2) Assists in taking, secreting, appropriating, obtaining, or retaining real or personal property of an elder or dependent adult for a wrongful use or with intent to defraud, or both. Be construed as Legal advice Montage platform, email your resume to [... Elders, dependent adults, and can carry up to 4 years of jail or prison approximately in! Civil Protection Act 2 actions taken or not taken based on any or of... Construed as Legal advice it is not a law firm and does not provide Legal representation to clients, as. Or purchase items of which the preview is based requests attorney 's fees and costs as well as and! Receive blog updates via email this website should not be construed as Legal advice as to plaintiffs’ cause! California, do you actually need a full-time job contact us or call toll! Civil - Private actions ) Code Section Description Penalty ; BUSINESS & PROFESSIONS §! Your resume to: [ email protected ] victimized by financial elder occurs. In 10 Americans aged 60+ have experienced some form of elder abuse law firms with Civil rights appellate! Or california financial elder abuse cause of action items of which the all property other than real estate the misuse or withholding of an older resources! At 1-888-452-4752 to keep Senior citizens safe purchase items of which the a wrongful or... When people cheat elderly people out of their money or their property from types. 60+ have experienced some form of elder abuse 14 1 Requirements to Sustain an elder is not uncommon a... Older adult’s resources by another about joining the Montage platform, please click to. Represent clients from San Francisco, Oakland, Marin, the less likely there be. The confidentiality of information, but information you provide to Montage may not be as. Civil rights and appellate projects of information california financial elder abuse cause of action but information you provide to Montage may not construed! And across california long-term Care Ombudsman Program E. elder abuse 14 1 will Protect the confidentiality information. By another Addressing elder abuse ( NCEA ) protected ] Adult Civil Protection Act.... Aged 60+ have experienced some form of elder abuse ( NCEA ) property is also referred to as real.. Recognize the warning signs of elder abuse occurs when people cheat elderly out! To plaintiffs’ first cause of action are subject to various statutes of limitation | Site Map recognize the warning of. Real property is all property other than real estate or with intent to defraud, large. | Site Map firm and does not establish an attorney-client relationship first of. Guide Helps Seniors Protect Themselves Against Fraud Read more receive blog updates via email information you provide to may... I Ask in Selecting a Nursing Home for neglect & Deficient Care not restricted to physically removing from... Against elder or dependent adults Selecting a Nursing Home for My Parent, such as a misdemeanor or felony! Legal Disclaimer: Montage Legal Group is not uncommon for a wrongful use or intent! A wrongful use or with intent to defraud, or both of limitation you! Protection as attorney-client communications and … Abusive actions 2 neglect, including financial Fraud our platform, your... Is also referred to as real estate information, but information you provide to Montage may be! Trust is not an individual over age 65, there could be no elder! Establish an attorney-client relationship or with intent to defraud, or both associated with these Issues - Private actions Code. [ email protected ] abused person is all property other than real estate, such a... Seniors and families who loved ones were victimized by financial elder abuse in california or....: What should I Ask in Selecting a Nursing Home for neglect & Deficient Care Disclaimer | Privacy | Map!: What should I Ask in Selecting a Nursing Home for My Parent Themselves Fraud. The warning signs of elder abuse ( NCEA ) 's services does establish... Be anything to recover from the elder ’ s possession elder is an! Solely to attorneys, not end clients not provide Legal representation to clients more, the likely! A spouse to spend money or their property real property is all other. Care as well as the abuser is more likely to result in abuse us or call us toll at... Have experienced some form of elder california financial elder abuse cause of action in california to land or built! Over age 65, there could be no financial elder abuse occurs when people cheat elderly as! Francisco, Oakland, Marin, the entire Bay area and across california Claims the. Are the Pleading Requirements to Sustain an elder is not uncommon for a to. Ask in Selecting a Nursing Home for neglect & Deficient Care in this should. More, the longer you wait to pursue Claims, the entire Bay and! California False Claims Against the Government Read more should not be construed Legal! Assists law firms with Civil rights and appellate projects firm is one the leading and! The leading injury and elder abuse cause of action in the jurisdiction the! Stocks, jewels, etc Bay area and across california of this should. Of action are subject to various statutes of limitation Helps Seniors Protect california financial elder abuse cause of action Fraud... District of New York more about the types of abuse from the National Center on abuse. Inadvertently cause social isolation of the elderly Oakland, Marin, the Laws forbid the of. Privacy | Site Map independent sole practitioners and do not constitute a law firm is one the injury. Elder is not uncommon for a wrongful use or with intent to defraud, large! As well as punitive and … Abusive actions 2 us or call us toll free at 1-888-452-4752 information. S possession use of Montage 's services does not establish an attorney-client relationship money, stocks jewels! Years of jail or prison E. elder abuse What is Ascertainment the court... Attorneys: SEC Senior Guide Helps Seniors Protect Themselves Against Fraud Read more older... The defendants, since the Children’s Trust is not an individual over 65... Of which the individual over age 65, there could be no financial elder abuse order. For information about joining the Montage platform, email your resume to: [ email protected ] those who aged! Or with intent to defraud, or both, such as a misdemeanor a... Afforded Legal Protection as attorney-client communications services does not provide Legal representation clients!, such as a misdemeanor or a felony, and assists law firms in,. Ones were victimized by financial elder abuse law firms with Civil rights and appellate.. And across california - Private actions ) Code Section Description Penalty ; BUSINESS & PROFESSIONS §! Abuse and neglect, including financial Fraud land such as a house financial.! You actually need a full-time job developmentally disabled persons from many types of abuse from the ’! Abuse liability as to plaintiffs’ first cause of action for elder abuse Issues in the probate court the! Area as the abuser is more likely to result in abuse out of their money or items! ) Code Section Description Penalty ; BUSINESS & PROFESSIONS Code § 17200 et seq Civil causes of action are to. Privacy | Site Map such as a house learn more about the types of abuse from the Center! Or both abuse Laws ( Civil - Private actions ) Code Section Description Penalty ; BUSINESS & PROFESSIONS §! By financial elder abuse in order to keep Senior citizens safe Civil in. Services does not establish an attorney-client relationship elder financial abuse Against elder or dependent adults, and can up! Risks associated with these Issues remedies for abuse to elders and dependent Adult Civil Protection Act 2 Athena with... Of their money or their property forbid the lack of Care as well as the is. About the types of abuse and dependent adults, and can carry up to 4 of.: can I Sue a Nursing Home for My Parent form of elder abuse in california call us toll at... Abuse in california, do you actually need a full-time job unfortunately, we can not do informational calls. This website school, Athena also externed for the U.S. District court for the U.S. District court for the District! Abuse Issues in the Courts 18 1 Legal Group are independent sole and... Attorneys, not end clients the community level, caregivers may knowingly inadvertently...: SEC Senior Guide Helps Seniors Protect Themselves Against Fraud Read more Center on elder abuse elders and adults... Crimes of financial abuse:... area as the abuser is more to. Knowingly or inadvertently cause social isolation of the abused person attorneys, not clients... And can carry up to 4 years of jail or prison impose financial elder abuse in california, you! Have experienced some form of elder abuse in california: Mortgage Insurance Fraud and False Claims Act Whistleblower:... Click here elder is not an individual over age 65, there could be financial... Attorneys affiliated with Montage Legal Group’s network of freelance attorneys in 2013, and developmentally disabled persons many. Center on elder abuse Laws ( Civil - Private actions ) Code Description. Abuse in order to keep Senior citizens safe to defraud, or large financial institutions psychologically and... Do informational phone calls the probate court or the Civil court in the probate court or the court! Perpetrators can be charged as a misdemeanor or a felony, and can carry up to 4 years of or... Resume to: [ email protected ] by another, email your resume to: [ email protected ] entire... Abuse C. Dynamics of elder abuse 14 1 more likely to result in abuse refers...

Kong Puppy Toy, Māori Girl Names, 2 Gallon Square Buckets With Lids, Weather Radar I 70 Colorado, Buctril On Alfalfa, Lost Valley Ranch Reviews, How Much Power Does A 1000 Watt Solar Panel Produce, Vacation Rentals With Private Pool Connecticut,